Oficios Técnicos

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Lift Pumps

A lift pump is a single-acting pump; it consists of an open cylinder and a discharge or bucket-type valve (see Figure ). An open cylinder and a discharge or bucket-type valve in combination are the basic parts of the lift pump—it lifts the water, rather than forces it.

In the lift pump, the bucket valve is built into the piston and moves upward and downward with the piston.

A four-stroke cycle is necessary to start the lift pump in operation (see Figure ). The strokes are as follows:

  • Air exhaust—The piston descends to the bottom of the cylinder, forcing out the air.
  • Water inlet—On this upward stroke, a vacuum is created. Atmospheric pressure causes the water to flow into the cylinder.
  • Water transfer—During this downward stroke, the water flows through the bucket valve (that is, it is transferred to the upper side of the piston).
  • Water discharge—As the piston rises, the water is discharged (that is, it runs from the pump).

After the pump has been primed and is in operation, the working cycle is completed in two strokes of the piston—a downward stroke and an upward stroke (see Figure 3). The downward stroke of the piston is called the transfer stroke, and the upward stroke is called the intake and discharge stroke, because water enters the cylinder as the preceding charge of water is being discharged.

Bombas de elevación

Una bomba elevadora es una bomba de acción simple; la misma consiste en un cilindro simple y una descarga o válvula tipo cubo ( retención) (ver figura). Un cilindro abierto y una descarga o válvula tipo cubo en combinación son las partes básicas de la bomba de elevación (la misma eleva el agua, en lugar de forzarla).

En la bomba de elevación, la válvula cubo está construida dentro del pistón y se mueve hacia arriba y hacia abajo con el pistón.

Un ciclo de cuatro carreras es necesario para poner en funcionamiento la bomba de elevación (ver figura). Las carreras son como sigue:

  • Salida de aire: el pistón desciende hacia la base del cilindro, forzando hacia afuera al aire.
  • Entrada de agua: En esta carrera hacia arriba, se crea un vacío. La presión atmosférica hace que el agua circule dentro del cilindro.
  • Transferencia de agua: Durante esta carrera hacia abajo, el agua fluye a través de la válvula cubo (o sea, es transferida hacia la parte superior del pistón ).
  • Descarga de agua: A medida que el pistón se eleva, el agua es descargada ( o sea, la misma sale de la bomba).

Luego de que la bomba ha sido cebada y está en operación, el ciclo de trabajo es completado en dos carreras de pistón (una carrera hacia abajo y una carrera hacia arriba – ver figura 3). La carrera del pistón hacia abajo es llamada la carrera de transferencia, y la carrera hacia arriba es llamada la carrera de succión y descarga, debido a que el agua entra al cilindro a medida que la carga de agua precedente es descargada.

Fig. 1 Basic construction of a single-acting lift pump. Fig. 1. Construcción básica de una bomba de elevación de acción simple
Fig. 2. Four-stroke starting cycle for a single-acting lift pump. Fig. 2. Ciclo de arranque de cuatro tiempos para una bomba de elevación de accionamiento simple.
Fig. 3. Two-stroke working cycle (after priming) for a single-acting lift pump. Fig. 3 Ciclo de trabajo de dos carreras (luego del cebado) para una bomba de accionamiento simple.
   

 

Force Pumps

The force pump is actually an extension of a lift pump, in that it both lifts and forces the water against an external pressure. The basic operating principle of the force pump is that it forces water above the atmospheric pressure range, as distinguished from the lift pump, which elevates the water to flow from a spout.

Single-Action

In a force pump, the water is forced out of the cylinder by means of a piston or plunger working against a pressure that corresponds to the head or elevation above the inlet valve to which the water is pumped. In its simplest form, the force pump consists of an inlet valve, a discharge valve, and a single-acting plunger (see Figure 4).

Bombas de fuerza

La bomba de fuerza es en realidad una extensión de una bomba de elevación, en la que la misma levanta y fuerza a la vez el agua contra una presión exterior. El principio operativo básico de la bomba de fuerza es que la misma  fuerza el agua sobre el rango de presión atmosférica, una diferencia que la distingue de la bomba de elevación, que eleva el agua para que fluya desde un pico.

Accionamiento simple.

En una bomba de fuerza, el agua es forzada fuera del cilindro por medio de un pistón o émbolo trabajando contra una presión que corresponde a la carga o elevación sobre la válvula de entrada a la cual el agua es bombeada. En su forma mas simple, la bomba de fuerza consiste en una válvula de entrada, una válvula de descarga, un émbolo de accionamiento único (ver figura 4).

Fig.4 - Basic construction of a single-acting plunger-type force pump.

In a single-acting force pump, the working cycle is completed in two strokes—an upward (intake) stroke and a downward (discharge) stroke (see Figure 5). During the upward stroke, the vacuum that is created enables atmospheric pressure to force the water into the cylinder. During this stroke the inlet valve is open and the discharge valve is closed. During the downward stroke, the plunger displaces (forces open) the discharge valve, and the water flows out of the cylinder against the pressure resulting from the dynamic head.

 

Fig. 4- Construcción básica de una bomba de fuerza de accionamiento simple tipo émbolo

En una bomba de fuerza de accionamiento único o simple, el ciclo de trabajo es completado en dos carreras o tiempos - una carrera hacia arriba (succión) y una carrera hacia abajo (descarga) (ver figura 5). Durante la carrera hacia arriba, el vacío que es creado permite que la presión atmosférica fuerce el agua dentro del cilindro. Durante  esta carrera la válvula de entrada es abierta y la válvula de descarga es cerrada. Durante la carrera hacia abajo, el émbolo desplaza (fuerza la abertura) la válvula de descarga, y el agua fluye fuera del cilindro contra la presión resultante de la carga dinámica.

Fig. 5 - Two-stroke working cycle of a single-acting plunger-type force pump.

Another type of force pump uses inlet valves, bucket valves, and discharge valves (see Figure 6). The piston works in a closed cylinder (note the stuffing box for the piston rod). The water flows progressively through the inlet or foot valve, the bucket valve, and the discharge valve.

 

Fig. 5 - Ciclo de trabajo de dos carreras de una bomba de fuerza de accionamiento simple.

Otro tipo de bomba de fuerza usa válvulas de entrada, válvulas cubo y válvulas de descarga (ver figura 6). El pistón trabaja en un cilindro cerrado (nótese el prensaestopas para el vástago del pistón). El agua fluye progresivamente a través de la entrada o válvula pie, la válvula cubo y la válvula de descarga.

 

Fig. 6 -Basic construction of a single-acting force pump with bucket-type valve in piston.

In starting the pump (see Figure 7), the air in the cylinder (assuming the system to be full of air) is transferred from the lower side of the piston to the upper side on the downward (first) stroke.

 

Fig. 6 - Construcción básica de una bomba de fuerza de accionamiento simple con válvula tipo cubo en pistón.

En el arranque de la bomba (ver figura 7), el aire en el cilindro (considerando que el sistema está lleno de aire) es transferido desde la parte inferior del pistón a la parte superior en la (primer) carrera hacia abajo.

Fig. 7- Four-stroke starting cycle of a single-acting force pump with a bucket-type valve in the piston.

On the upward (second) stroke, the vacuum that is created enables the atmospheric pressure to force the water into the cylinder. On the next downward (third) stroke, the water is transferred to the upper side of the piston, and is discharged on the upward (fourth) stroke through the discharge valve.

When the system is cleared of air and in operation, the working cycle is completed in two strokes of the piston—a downward (transfer) stroke and an upward (discharge) stroke. On the downward stroke, the water is transferred through the bucket valve. On the upward stroke, the water above the piston is discharged, and the water is admitted to the lower side of the piston.

Fig. 7 - Ciclo de cuatro tiempos de una bomba de fuerza de accionamiento simple con válvula tipo cubo en el pistón.

En la (segunda) carrera hacia arriba, el vacío que es creado permite que la presión atmosférica fuerce el agua dentro del cilindro. En la siguiente (tercera) carrera, el agua es transferida a la parte superior del pistón, y es descargada sobre la (cuarta) carrera hacia arriba a través de la válvula de descarga.

Cuando el sistema está purgado de aire y en operación, el ciclo de trabajo es completado en dos carreras del pistón – una carrera hacia abajo (transferencia) y una carrera (descarga) hacia arriba. En la carrera hacia abajo, el agua es transferida a través de la válvula balde. En la carrera hacia arriba, el agua sobre el pistón es descargada, y el agua es admitida hacia la parte inferior del pistón.

 

 

 

 

 

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