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MECÁNICA : Máquinas básicas

Durante muchos años los artefactos mecánicos básicos que entran en la composición o formación de máquinas se conocieron como potencias mecánicas. Dado que estos artefactos mecánicos se consideran en un sentido más estático que dinámico (es decir, la consideración de fuerzas  opuestas en equilibrio en lugar de tender a producir movimiento), es más correcto referirse a las mismas como máquinas básicas. Estrictamente hablando, el término potencia es un término dinámico en relación con el régimen de tiempo haciendo trabajo. Cuando los elementos de una máquina están en equilibrio, ningún trabajo se realiza. Por lo tanto, es incorrecto referirse a las máquinas básicas como potencias mecánicas.

Se debe entender que la acción de todas las máquinas básicas depende del principio de trabajo, que es: La fuerza aplicada, multiplicada por la distancia a través de la cual se mueve, es igual a la resistencia a superar, multiplicada por la distancia a través de la cual es superada.

A continuación se presentan la máquinas básicas:

- Palanca
- Rueda y eje
- Polea
- Plano inclinado
- Tornillo
- Cuña

Estas máquinas pueden reducirse aún más a tres clases de máquinas, como sigue:

- Un cuerpo sólido girando sobre un eje
- Una cuerda flexible
- Una superficie inclinada dura y lisa

El principio de los momentos es importante en el estudio de las máquinas básicas. Este importante principio puede enunciarse de la siguiente manera: "Cuando dos o más fuerzas actúan sobre un cuerpo rígido y tienden a girar en un eje, existe equilibrio si la suma de los momentos de las fuerzas que tienden a girar el cuerpo en una dirección es igual a la suma de los momentos de las fuerzas que tienden a girar el cuerpo en la dirección opuesta alrededor del mismo eje.”

Palanca

Una palanca es una barra de metal, madera, u otra sustancia que se utiliza para ejercer una presión o para sostener un peso en un punto de su longitud al recibir una fuerza en un segundo punto, y es libre de dar vuelta en un tercer punto o punto fijo llamado fulcro. Su aplicación se basa en el Principio de Momentos. La siguiente regla general se puede aplicar a todas las clases de palancas.

Regla: La fuerza P, multiplicada por su distancia desde el fulcro F, es igual a la carga W,  multiplicada por su distancia desde el fulcro.

Por lo tanto, la fórmula de cálculo que implica las tres clases de palancas es:

F ×  distancia  = W x distancia

Como se muestra en la figura 1, hay tres clases de palancas.

Figura 1. Las tres clases de palancas.

Problema

¿Qué fuerza P se requiere en un punto a 3 pies de distancia del  punto de apoyo F para equilibrar un peso de 112 libras aplicado en un punto a 6 pulgadas del punto de apoyo?

Solución

Las distancias o longitudes de las palancas son 3 pies y 6 pulgadas, respectivamente. Dado que las distancias deben ser de la misma denominación, los 3 pies deben reducirse a pulgadas (3 × 12), o sea 36 pulgadas. Entonces, aplicando la regla:

Rueda y eje

Figura 2.  El principio del aparejo diferencial, dando manivela en sentido horario para levantar el peso (a la izquierda), y la operación de elevación completa (a la derecha).

Una comparación de la rueda y el eje con la palanca de primer orden (véase la figura 1) indica que son similares en principio. La misma  fórmula puede ser utilizada para los cálculos que implican la rueda y el eje. Figura 2 muestra la rueda y el eje chino. Esta es una modificación de la rueda y el eje, y se puede utilizar para obtener apalancamiento extremo. Este es también el principio básico del aparejo diferencial. A medida que la manivela se gira hacia la derecha, el cable se enrolla en el tambor B y se desenrolla del tambor A. Debido a que el tambor B es más grande en diámetro, la longitud del cable entre los dos tambores es gradualmente absorbida, levantando la carga. Por lo tanto, si la diferencia en los diámetros de los dos tambores es pequeña, se obtiene un apalancamiento extremo, lo que permite que pesos pesados puedan ser levantados con poco esfuerzo. Además, la carga permanece suspendida en cualquier punto, porque la diferencia en los diámetros de los dos tambores es demasiado pequeña para superar la fricción de las partes.

Polea

Los dos tipos de son fijos y móviles. Ninguna ventaja mecánica se obtiene de la polea fija. Su uso es importante en realizar un trabajo que sea adecuado (elevar agua de un pozo, por ejemplo).

La polea móvil, al distribuir de su peso en porciones separadas, está dotada de ventajas mecánicas proporcionales al número de puntos de apoyo. Como se ilustra en la figura 3, la relación entre la fuerza aplicada y la carga levantada es cambiada por las diversas combinaciones de polea básicas. Por supuesto, una gama aún mayor se pueden obtener por medio de poleas adicionales, pero hay un límite práctico a que esto sea mecánicamente conveniente. La norma siguiente establece la  relación entre la fuerza y la carga.

Figura 3. Relación entre la fuerza aplicada y la carga elevada en diversas combinaciones básicas de poleas.

Regla: La carga W que puede ser levantada por una combinación de poleas es igual a la fuerza F veces el número de cables que soportan el bloque inferior o móvil.

Plano Inclinado

Si un camino en pendiente o inclinado es sustituido por una línea ascendente directa de ascenso, un peso dado puede ser levantado por un peso más pequeño. Por lo tanto, el plano inclinado es una máquina básica, debido a una fuerza menor puede ser aplicada para levantar una carga (ver Figura 4).

Regla: A medida que la fuerza P es aplicada a la carga W, la misma relación se cumple para la altura H a la longitud del plano inclinado L.

Así, el cálculo es:

fuerza: carga = altura: longitud del plano

Problema

¿Qué fuerza P se requiere para levantar una carga de 10 libras si la altura es 2 pies y el plano es de 12 pies de largo?

Figura 4. Plano inclinado. Un menor peso (P) puede ser utilizado para levantar una carga o el peso (W), porque la carga es parcialmente soportada por el plano inclinado.

Solución

Sustituyendo en la ecuación anterior:

Tornillo

Este tipo de máquina básica es meramente un plano inclinado envuelto alrededor de un cilindro. El tornillo se utiliza para ejercer una presión severa a través de un espacio pequeño. Dado que se lo somete a una alta pérdida de fricción, el tornillo generalmente ejerce una pequeña cantidad de potencia en sí mismo, pero una gran cantidad de potencia se puede derivar cuando se combina con la palanca o la rueda.

Regla: La fuerza aplicada P es a la carga W, como el paso de rosca es a la longitud del hilo de rosca por vuelta.

Así, el cálculo es:

fuerza aplicada P : carga W = paso : longitud de rosca por vuelta

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket Stubby Winch Bumper with Grill Guard
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket Stubby Winch Bumper with Grill Guard

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Bumper without Grill Guard

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Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Bumper without Grill Guard Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;2 Stage matte black powder coat;Designed for maximum tire clearance;Optional winch plate (JPWP-1) or optional Winch Modifier (JK07-B1859-1); Accepts up to 10,000 lb. winches or smaller; Accepts the WARN Power plant and Zeon winches; Light cut outs for factory fog lights; Optional cutouts for 2x2 Rigid Industries Surface Mount Dually lights (Not included); 3/4 D-ring mounts;3/16 steel construction;100% Made in the USA JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included Fab Fours Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Front Bu... [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Bumper with Grill Guard
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Bumper with Grill Guard

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Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Bumper with Grill Guard Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;2 Stage matte black powder coat;Designed for maximum tire clearance;Optional winch plate (JPWP-1) or optional Winch Modifier (JK07-B1859-1); Accepts up to 10,000 lb. winches or smaller; Accepts the WARN Power plant and Zeon winches; Light cut outs for factory fog lights; Optional cutouts for 2x2 Rigid Industries Surface Mount Dually lights (Not included); 3/4 D-ring mounts;3/16 steel construction;100% Made in the USA JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included Fab Fours Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket F... [Read more]

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2002 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) Fab Fours Lifestyle Winch Bumper with Grille Guard
 

2002 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) Fab Fours Lifestyle Winch Bumper with Grille Guard

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Lifestyle Winch Bumper with Grille Guard Fits 1997 to 2006 TJ Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 stage black powder coat - semi gloss semi textured;3/16" construction throughout;3/4" d-ring mounts;Fab Fours signature knife edge;Winch Ready: Accepts WARN Power Plant JEEP WRANGLER (LJ) WRANGLER (TJ) 65TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION RUBICON SAHARA SE SPORT UNLIMITED UNLIMITED RUBICON X 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2.4L Power-Tech (148) 2.5L (150) 4L Power Tech (242) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included with Stinger Fab Fours Fab Fours Lifestyle Winch Front Bumper with Grille Guard (Black) - JP97-B1452-1 JP97-B1452-1 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2002 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) Fab Fours Lifestyle Winch Bumper without Grille Guard
 

2002 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) Fab Fours Lifestyle Winch Bumper without Grille Guard

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Lifestyle Winch Bumper without Grille Guard Fits 1997 to 2006 TJ Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;Bare steel;3/16" construction throughout;3/4" d-ring mounts;Fab Fours signature knife edge;Winch Ready: Accepts WARN Power Plant JEEP WRANGLER (LJ) WRANGLER (TJ) 65TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION RUBICON SAHARA SE SPORT UNLIMITED UNLIMITED RUBICON X 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2.4L Power-Tech (148) 2.5L (150) 4L Power Tech (242) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included Fab Fours Fab Fours Lifestyle Winch Front Bumper without Grille Guard (Bare) - JP97-B1451-B JP97-B1451-B Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Bestop HighRock 4x4 Narrow Front Winch Bumper in Black
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Bestop HighRock 4x4 Narrow Front Winch Bumper in Black

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Rampage Stubby Front Recovery Winch Mount Bumper with Stinger
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Rampage Stubby Front Recovery Winch Mount Bumper with Stinger

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Front Recovery Bumper Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Textured black finish;Includes stinger;Custom welded shackle mounts with 3/4" shackle d-rings;Factory fog lights can be used or Rampage fog or driving lights sold separately JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included Rampage Rampage Stubby Front Recovery Winch Mount Bumper with Stinger (Black) - 88509 88509 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2002 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) Fab Fours Lifestyle Winch Bumper with Grille Guard
 

2002 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) Fab Fours Lifestyle Winch Bumper with Grille Guard

$989.99

Lifestyle Winch Bumper with Grille Guard Fits 1997 to 2006 TJ Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;Bare steel;3/16" construction throughout;3/4" d-ring mounts;Fab Fours signature knife edge;Winch Ready: Accepts WARN Power Plant JEEP WRANGLER (LJ) WRANGLER (TJ) 65TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION RUBICON SAHARA SE SPORT UNLIMITED UNLIMITED RUBICON X 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2.4L Power-Tech (148) 2.5L (150) 4L Power Tech (242) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included with Stinger Fab Fours Fab Fours Lifestyle Winch Front Bumper with Grille Guard (Bare) - JP97-B1452-B JP97-B1452-B Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2002 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) GenRight Grille Guard Stubby Front Bumper with Winch Mount in Bare Steel
 

2002 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) GenRight Grille Guard Stubby Front Bumper with Winch Mount in Bare Steel

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Stubby Front Bumper Fits 1997 to 2006 TJ Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;Bare steel;Improves approach angle;Compact design fits tight to the frame and wraps around each side;Works with Anti Rock type front sway bars (factory sway bar too);Re-uses the factory 6 mounting bolts (4 on top and 2 on bottom);Formed from heavy-duty 3/16 thick steel plate;Includes two 1" thick tow points;Beefy 1-3/4 diameter tube winch and grille guard are welded directly on bumper;Includes a heavy-duty 1/4 winch fairlead mount;Grille bar is taller to accommodate 1" body lifts JEEP WRANGLER (LJ) WRANGLER (TJ) 65TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION RUBICON SAHARA SE SPORT UNLIMITED UNLIMITED RUBICON X 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2.4L Power-Tech (148) 2.5L (150) 4L Power Tech (242) GAS with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included with Stinger GenRight GenRight Grille Guard Stubby Front Bumper with Winch Mount (Bare)- FBB-2200 FBB-2200 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) GenRight Stubby Front Bumper with Winch Mount in Bare Steel
 

1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) GenRight Stubby Front Bumper with Winch Mount in Bare Steel

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Stubby Front Bumper Fits 1987 to 1995 YJ Wrangler;Bare steel;3/16" thick steel plate;low profile winch mount design;Includes two 1" thick Billet tow points welded into place;Includes a heavy duty 1/4 winch fairlead mount;Sold un-painted JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) BASE ISLANDER LAREDO RENEGADE RIO GRANDE S SAHARA SE SPORT 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 2.5L (150) 4.2L (258) 4L Power Tech (242) GAS with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included GenRight GenRight Stubby Front Bumper with Winch Mount (Bare)- FBB-4000 FBB-4000 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) GenRight Front Winch Mount Bumper with Boulder Stinger in Bare Steel
 

1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) GenRight Front Winch Mount Bumper with Boulder Stinger in Bare Steel

$659.99

Front Bumper with Boulder Stinger Fits 1987 to 1995 YJ Wrangler;3/16 thick steel plate;two 1" thick tow points;1-3/4 diameter tube to protect your winch;Includes a heavy-duty 1/4 winch fairlead mount;un-painted JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) BASE ISLANDER LAREDO RENEGADE RIO GRANDE S SAHARA SE SPORT 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 2.5L (150) 4.2L (258) 4L Power Tech (242) GAS with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included with Stinger GenRight GenRight Front Winch Mount Bumper with Boulder Stinger (Bare)- FBB-4100 FBB-4100 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2002 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) Smittybilt XRC Rock Crawler Winch Bumper with Grill Guard and D-ring Mounts
 

2002 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) Smittybilt XRC Rock Crawler Winch Bumper with Grill Guard and D-ring Mounts

$419.99

XRC Rock Crawler Winch Bumper Fits 1997 to 2006 TJ Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2-stage textured black powder coat;Degree approach angles and raised corners;3/16" cold rolled steel;Stinger is 1.75" tubing;Accepts up to two 9" lights;Bumpers bolt directly to your vehicle;5-year limited warranty JEEP WRANGLER (LJ) WRANGLER (TJ) 65TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION RUBICON SAHARA SE SPORT UNLIMITED UNLIMITED RUBICON X 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2.4L Power-Tech (148) 2.5L (150) 4L Power Tech (242) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included Smittybilt Smittybilt XRC Rock Crawler Winch Front Bumper with Grill Guard and D-ring Mounts (Black) - 76800 76800 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) GenRight Stubby Winch Mount Front Bumper
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) GenRight Stubby Winch Mount Front Bumper

$549.99

Stubby Front Bumper Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Bare steel;3/16" thick steel plate;Sunken winch tray to for optimal air flow to the radiator;2 billet steel tow points;100% Made in USA JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included GenRight GenRight Stubby Winch Mount Front Bumper (Black) - FBB-8000 FBB-8000 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) GenRight JK Front STEEL Bumper with Winch Guard
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) GenRight JK Front STEEL Bumper with Winch Guard

$824.99

Front Steel Bumper with Winch Guard Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;3/16" thick steel plate;Works with Antirock type sway bars (or the factory sway bar);8 bolt mounting;Includes two steel tow points;Low stinger bar is to protect the winch and grille;100% Made in USA JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included with Stinger GenRight GenRight JK Front STEEL Bumper with Winch Guard (Bare) - FBB-8205 FBB-8205 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) GenRight Front Bumper with Winch Guard
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) GenRight Front Bumper with Winch Guard

$934.99

Front Bumper with Winch Guard Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Bare steel;Works with Antirock type sway bars (or the factory sway bar);8 bolt mounting;Formed from light weight 3/16" thick Aluminum alloy;Includes two steel tow points;Low stinger bar is to protect the winch and grille JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included GenRight GenRight Front Bumper with Winch Guard (Bare) - FBB-8245 FBB-8245 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Warn Elite Series Winch Mount Front Bumper with Grille Guard
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Warn Elite Series Winch Mount Front Bumper with Grille Guard

$766.99  $654.99

Elite Series Front Bumper with Grille Guard Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Includes grille guard;Black powder coated wrinkle finish;3/16" steel plate;Ends are tapered for increased approach angles;Welded eyelets to mount D-shackles;No drilling required;Recessed Winch mount accepts all WARN mid-frame winches 12,000 lbs. capacity and under (excluding M8274-50);Recessed light ports and mounts for auxiliary lights (lights sold separately);Recessed jack points for more stable jack positioning JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included Warn Warn Elite Series Winch Mount Front Bumper with Grille Gu... [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Garvin Industries G2 Series Full Width Front Winch Mount Bumper
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Garvin Industries G2 Series Full Width Front Winch Mount Bumper

$1,104.99

G2 Series Front Bumper Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Full width;Black powder coat;Includes all mounting hardware JEEP WRANGLER (JK) ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included Garvin Industries Garvin Industries G2 Series Full Width Front Winch Mount Bumper (Black) - 66023 66023 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Hyline Offroad Front Recessed Winch Bumper
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Hyline Offroad Front Recessed Winch Bumper

$664.99

Front Recessed Winch Bumper Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Black powder coat;Recessed winch plate;Includes mounting hardware;5/8" thick d-ring mounts;Incorporates factory fog light cutouts;Made from 3/16" steel plate;Shown with optional winch guard, sold separately JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included Hyline Offroad Hyline Offroad Front Recessed Winch Bumper (Black) - 400.100.130 400.100.130 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Hyline Offroad Standard Winch Guard
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Hyline Offroad Standard Winch Guard

$141.99

Standard Winch Guard Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Black powder coat;1-3/4"diameter tubing;Light tabs welded on;Fits Hyline Front Winch Bumpers;Made in the USA JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Light Mounts Included with Grille Guard Included Hyline Offroad Hyline Offroad Standard Winch Guard (Black) - 400.100.170 400.100.170 Front Bumpers [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Hyline Offroad

1997 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) Jeep Rock Crawler Front Winch Mount Bumper
 

1997 JEEP WRANGLER (TJ) Jeep Rock Crawler Front Winch Mount Bumper

$770.99

Rock Crawler Front Bumper Fits 1997 to 2006 TJ Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;Black;High clearance;Compatible with your airbag system;Integrated winch mount and tow eyes JEEP WRANGLER (LJ) WRANGLER (TJ) 65TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION RUBICON SAHARA SE SPORT UNLIMITED UNLIMITED RUBICON X 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2.4L Power-Tech (148) 2.5L (150) 4L Power Tech (242) GAS with Winch Mount Included Jeep Jeep Rock Crawler Front Winch Mount Bumper (Black) - 82209147AC 82209147AC Front Bumpers [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Jeep

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Jeep Front Off Road Bumper with Winch Mount Grill Guard and Fog Light Holes
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Jeep Front Off Road Bumper with Winch Mount Grill Guard and Fog Light Holes

$1,352.99

Front Off Road Bumper with Winch Mount and Fog Light Holes Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Satin black;Includes winch mount and holes for factory fog lamps JEEP WRANGLER (JK) ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included Jeep Jeep Front Off Road Bumper with Winch Mount Grill Guard and Fog Light Holes (Black) - 82213575 82213575 Front Bumpers [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Jeep

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Olympic 4x4 Products BOA Front Winch Bumper in Gloss Black
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Olympic 4x4 Products BOA Front Winch Bumper in Gloss Black

$469.99

BOA Front Winch Bumper Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Gloss black powder coat;Engineered to easily bolt on;BOA style tube bending provides extreme front end and grille protection;Manufactured from 2" round construction quality heavy wall steel tubing JEEP WRANGLER (JK) ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included Olympic 4x4 Products Olympic 4x4 Products BOA Front Winch Bumper in Gloss Black (Black) - 272-171 272-171 Front Bumpers [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Olympic 4X4 Products

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Olympic 4x4 Products BOA Front Winch Bumper in Textured Black
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Olympic 4x4 Products BOA Front Winch Bumper in Textured Black

$449.99

BOA Front Winch Bumper Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Textured black powder coat;Engineered to easily bolt on;BOA style tube bending provides extreme front end and grille protection;Manufactured from 2" round construction quality heavy wall steel tubing JEEP WRANGLER (JK) ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included Olympic 4x4 Products Olympic 4x4 Products BOA Front Winch Bumper in Textured Black (Black) - 272-174 272-174 Front Bumpers [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Olympic 4X4 Products

1986 JEEP CJ7 Olympic 4x4 Products Front Rock Winch Bumper in Textured Black
 

1986 JEEP CJ7 Olympic 4x4 Products Front Rock Winch Bumper in Textured Black

$465.99

Front Rock Winch Bumper Fits 1976 to 1986 CJ;Textured black powder coat;Built rock solid;Gull wing style allows improved tire clearance;Protects the full front end from fender to fender;Reinforced with support struts;Sits on top of the frame horns increasing the ground clearance under the bumper JEEP CJ5 CJ7 SCRAMBLER BASE 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 2.5L (151) 2.5L (150) 3.8L (232) 4.2L (258) 5L (304) GAS with Winch Mount Included Olympic 4x4 Products Olympic 4x4 Products Front Rock Winch Bumper in Textured Black (Black) - 506-104 506-104 Front Bumpers [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Olympic 4X4 Products

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Donde "paso" es la distancia entre elementos similares dispuestos en un modelo o entre dos puntos de una pieza mecánica como, por ejemplo, la distancia entre las cimas de dos ranuras consecutivas de un disco, o entre dos filetes consecutivos de un tornillo.

Problema

Si el paso o distancia entre filetes es de 1/4 pulgada y una fuerza P de 100 libras es aplicada, que carga de peso W se puede mover por el tornillo si la longitud de la rosca por vuelta del tornillo es de 10 pulgadas?

Solución

Sustituyendo en la ecuación anterior:

Cuña

La cuña es prácticamente un par de planos inclinados que se colocan espalda a espalda o en contacto a lo largo de sus bases (ver figura 5).

Figura 5. Aplicación de una cuña (P) para levantar una carga pesada o peso (W).

Regla:  La fuerza aplicada P es la carga W, como el espesor de la cuña es a su longitud.

Así, el cálculo es:

fuerza aplicada P : carga W = espesor de la cuña: longitud de la cuña

Problema

¿ Qué fuerza aplicada  P se requiere para elevar una carga W de 2000 libras, utilizando una cuña que tiene 4 pulgadas de espesor y 20 pulgadas de longitud?

Solución

Sustituyendo en la ecuación:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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