Oficios Técnicos

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MECÁNICA : Máquinas básicas

Durante muchos años los artefactos mecánicos básicos que entran en la composición o formación de máquinas se conocieron como potencias mecánicas. Dado que estos artefactos mecánicos se consideran en un sentido más estático que dinámico (es decir, la consideración de fuerzas  opuestas en equilibrio en lugar de tender a producir movimiento), es más correcto referirse a las mismas como máquinas básicas. Estrictamente hablando, el término potencia es un término dinámico en relación con el régimen de tiempo haciendo trabajo. Cuando los elementos de una máquina están en equilibrio, ningún trabajo se realiza. Por lo tanto, es incorrecto referirse a las máquinas básicas como potencias mecánicas.

Se debe entender que la acción de todas las máquinas básicas depende del principio de trabajo, que es: La fuerza aplicada, multiplicada por la distancia a través de la cual se mueve, es igual a la resistencia a superar, multiplicada por la distancia a través de la cual es superada.

A continuación se presentan la máquinas básicas:

- Palanca
- Rueda y eje
- Polea
- Plano inclinado
- Tornillo
- Cuña

Estas máquinas pueden reducirse aún más a tres clases de máquinas, como sigue:

- Un cuerpo sólido girando sobre un eje
- Una cuerda flexible
- Una superficie inclinada dura y lisa

El principio de los momentos es importante en el estudio de las máquinas básicas. Este importante principio puede enunciarse de la siguiente manera: "Cuando dos o más fuerzas actúan sobre un cuerpo rígido y tienden a girar en un eje, existe equilibrio si la suma de los momentos de las fuerzas que tienden a girar el cuerpo en una dirección es igual a la suma de los momentos de las fuerzas que tienden a girar el cuerpo en la dirección opuesta alrededor del mismo eje.”

Palanca

Una palanca es una barra de metal, madera, u otra sustancia que se utiliza para ejercer una presión o para sostener un peso en un punto de su longitud al recibir una fuerza en un segundo punto, y es libre de dar vuelta en un tercer punto o punto fijo llamado fulcro. Su aplicación se basa en el Principio de Momentos. La siguiente regla general se puede aplicar a todas las clases de palancas.

Regla: La fuerza P, multiplicada por su distancia desde el fulcro F, es igual a la carga W,  multiplicada por su distancia desde el fulcro.

Por lo tanto, la fórmula de cálculo que implica las tres clases de palancas es:

F ×  distancia  = W x distancia

Como se muestra en la figura 1, hay tres clases de palancas.

Figura 1. Las tres clases de palancas.

Problema

¿Qué fuerza P se requiere en un punto a 3 pies de distancia del  punto de apoyo F para equilibrar un peso de 112 libras aplicado en un punto a 6 pulgadas del punto de apoyo?

Solución

Las distancias o longitudes de las palancas son 3 pies y 6 pulgadas, respectivamente. Dado que las distancias deben ser de la misma denominación, los 3 pies deben reducirse a pulgadas (3 × 12), o sea 36 pulgadas. Entonces, aplicando la regla:

Rueda y eje

Figura 2.  El principio del aparejo diferencial, dando manivela en sentido horario para levantar el peso (a la izquierda), y la operación de elevación completa (a la derecha).

Una comparación de la rueda y el eje con la palanca de primer orden (véase la figura 1) indica que son similares en principio. La misma  fórmula puede ser utilizada para los cálculos que implican la rueda y el eje. Figura 2 muestra la rueda y el eje chino. Esta es una modificación de la rueda y el eje, y se puede utilizar para obtener apalancamiento extremo. Este es también el principio básico del aparejo diferencial. A medida que la manivela se gira hacia la derecha, el cable se enrolla en el tambor B y se desenrolla del tambor A. Debido a que el tambor B es más grande en diámetro, la longitud del cable entre los dos tambores es gradualmente absorbida, levantando la carga. Por lo tanto, si la diferencia en los diámetros de los dos tambores es pequeña, se obtiene un apalancamiento extremo, lo que permite que pesos pesados puedan ser levantados con poco esfuerzo. Además, la carga permanece suspendida en cualquier punto, porque la diferencia en los diámetros de los dos tambores es demasiado pequeña para superar la fricción de las partes.

Polea

Los dos tipos de son fijos y móviles. Ninguna ventaja mecánica se obtiene de la polea fija. Su uso es importante en realizar un trabajo que sea adecuado (elevar agua de un pozo, por ejemplo).

La polea móvil, al distribuir de su peso en porciones separadas, está dotada de ventajas mecánicas proporcionales al número de puntos de apoyo. Como se ilustra en la figura 3, la relación entre la fuerza aplicada y la carga levantada es cambiada por las diversas combinaciones de polea básicas. Por supuesto, una gama aún mayor se pueden obtener por medio de poleas adicionales, pero hay un límite práctico a que esto sea mecánicamente conveniente. La norma siguiente establece la  relación entre la fuerza y la carga.

Figura 3. Relación entre la fuerza aplicada y la carga elevada en diversas combinaciones básicas de poleas.

Regla: La carga W que puede ser levantada por una combinación de poleas es igual a la fuerza F veces el número de cables que soportan el bloque inferior o móvil.

Plano Inclinado

Si un camino en pendiente o inclinado es sustituido por una línea ascendente directa de ascenso, un peso dado puede ser levantado por un peso más pequeño. Por lo tanto, el plano inclinado es una máquina básica, debido a una fuerza menor puede ser aplicada para levantar una carga (ver Figura 4).

Regla: A medida que la fuerza P es aplicada a la carga W, la misma relación se cumple para la altura H a la longitud del plano inclinado L.

Así, el cálculo es:

fuerza: carga = altura: longitud del plano

Problema

¿Qué fuerza P se requiere para levantar una carga de 10 libras si la altura es 2 pies y el plano es de 12 pies de largo?

Figura 4. Plano inclinado. Un menor peso (P) puede ser utilizado para levantar una carga o el peso (W), porque la carga es parcialmente soportada por el plano inclinado.

Solución

Sustituyendo en la ecuación anterior:

Tornillo

Este tipo de máquina básica es meramente un plano inclinado envuelto alrededor de un cilindro. El tornillo se utiliza para ejercer una presión severa a través de un espacio pequeño. Dado que se lo somete a una alta pérdida de fricción, el tornillo generalmente ejerce una pequeña cantidad de potencia en sí mismo, pero una gran cantidad de potencia se puede derivar cuando se combina con la palanca o la rueda.

Regla: La fuerza aplicada P es a la carga W, como el paso de rosca es a la longitud del hilo de rosca por vuelta.

Así, el cálculo es:

fuerza aplicada P : carga W = paso : longitud de rosca por vuelta

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1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) Rugged Ridge Dual Tube Front Winch Bumper with Center Hoop
 

1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) Rugged Ridge Dual Tube Front Winch Bumper with Center Hoop

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1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) Rugged Ridge Dual Tube Front Winch Bumper with Center Hoop

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1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) Smittybilt XRC Rock Crawler Winch Bumper with Grill Guard and D-ring Mounts

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1996 JEEP CHEROKEE (XJ) Smittybilt XRC Rock Crawler Winch Bumper with D-ring Mounts

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1998 JEEP GRAND CHEROKEE (ZJ) Tomken Machine Front Winch Bumper with D-ring Mounts

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Front Bumper Fits 1993 to 1998 ZJ Grand Cherokee;Winch ready;4.5 x 10 bolt pattern;Includes 0.75 inch d-ring and tow bar mounts;Works with 5/8 inch d-rings;Black powder coat JEEP GRAND CHEROKEE (ZJ) BASE LAREDO LIMITED ORVIS SE TSI 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 4L Power Tech (242) 5.2L Magnum (318) GAS with Winch Mount Included Tomken Machine Tomken Machine Front Winch Bumper with D-ring Mounts (Black) - TMF-0638-B TMF-0638-B Front Bumpers [Read more]

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Front Bumper with Winch Guard Fits 1987 to 1995 YJ Wrangler;3/16 thick aluminum alloy;Super lightweight;Re-uses the factory 6 mounting bolts;Two tow hooks;Aluminum winch fairlead mount;Sold un-painted with Winch Mount Included with D-Ring Mount Included GenRight GenRight Front Bumper with Winch Guard (Bare) - FBB-4245 FBB-4245 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Warn Elite Series Winch Mount Front Bumper with Light and D-ringMounts
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Warn Elite Series Winch Mount Front Bumper with Light and D-ringMounts

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Elite Series Front Bumper Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Grille guard not included;Black powder coated wrinkle finish;3/16" steel plate;Ends are tapered for increased approach angles;Welded eyelets to mount D-shackles;Minimal drilling and cutting required JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included Warn Warn Elite Series Winch Mount Front Bumper with Light and D-ringMounts (Black) - 87775 87775 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) Westin Trailblazer Series Winch Mount Front Bumper
 

1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) Westin Trailblazer Series Winch Mount Front Bumper

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Trailblazer Series Winch Mount Front Bumper Fits 1987 to 2006 TJ Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;Winch mount Front Bumper;2" Dia.;D Shackle Mount Tabs;Includes 2 Light Brackets;Requires WES47-3106 winch mount plate; Fits 1/2" d-rings JEEP WRANGLER (LJ) WRANGLER (TJ) WRANGLER (YJ) 65TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION BASE ISLANDER LAREDO RENEGADE RIO GRANDE RUBICON S SAHARA SE SPORT UNLIMITED UNLIMITED RUBICON X 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2.4L Power-Tech (148) 2.5L (150) 4.2L (258) 4L Power Tech (242) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Grille Guard Included Westin Westin Trailblazer Series Winch Mount Front Bumper (Black) - 42-2005 42-2005 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Westin Trailblazer Series Winch Mount Front Bumper
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Westin Trailblazer Series Winch Mount Front Bumper

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Trailblazer Series Winch Mount Front Bumper Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Black powder coat;2" diameter;D-ring shackle mount tabs;Includes light brackets JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Grille Guard Included Westin Westin Trailblazer Series Winch Mount Front Bumper (Black) - 42-2015 42-2015 Front Bumpers [Read more]

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Stubby Front Bumper Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Textured black powder coat finish;Winch mount;54 wide;Plate steel construction;4" light pockets under winch plate;3 light mount tabs on hoop JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included Body Armor 4x4 Body Armor JK Wrangler Stubby Front Winch Bumper with Grill Guard in Textured Black Powdercoat (Textured) - JK-19532 JK-19532 Front Bum [Read more]

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2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Bumper without Grill Guard

$989.99

Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Bumper without Grill Guard Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Bare steel;Designed for maximum tire clearance;Optional winch plate (JPWP-1) or optional Winch Modifier (JK07-B1859-1);Accepts up to 10,000 lb. winches or smaller;Accepts the WARN Power plant and Zeon winches;Light cut outs for factory fog lights;Optional cutouts for 2x2 Rigid Industries Surface Mount Dually lights (Not included);3/4 D-ring mounts;3/16 steel construction;100% Made in the USA JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Winch Mount Included with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included Fab Fours Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Front Bumper without Grill Guard (... [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Fab Fours

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Bumper with Grill Guard
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Bumper with Grill Guard

$1,089.99

Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Bumper with Grill Guard Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Bare steel;Designed for maximum tire clearance;Optional winch plate (JPWP-1) or optional Winch Modifier (JK07-B1859-1);Accepts up to 10,000 lb. winches or smaller;Accepts the WARN Power plant and Zeon winches;Light cut outs for factory fog lights;Optional cutouts for 2x2 Rigid Industries Surface Mount Dually lights (Not included);3/4 D-ring mounts;3/16 steel construction;100% Made in the USA JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included with Light Mounts Included with D-Ring Mount Included Fab Fours Fab Fours Full Metal Jacket Full Width Winch Front Bump... [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Fab Fours

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Aries Offroad ARIES Offroad Stubbie Replacement Front Bumper with Winch Mount (Black) - 15600-0
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Aries Offroad ARIES Offroad Stubbie Replacement Front Bumper with Winch Mount (Black) - 15600-0

$365.99

Stubbie Replacement Bumper with Winch Mount Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Black powder coat;Center section only;Modular design that can be added to;Accepts factory fog lights;Includes vacuum pump relocation bracket JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Winch Mount Included Aries Offroad ARIES Offroad Stubbie Replacement Front Bumper with Winch Mount (Black) - 15600-0 15600-0 Front Bumpers [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Aries Offroad

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Aries Offroad Aluminum Stubbie Replacement Bumper with Winch Mount
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Aries Offroad Aluminum Stubbie Replacement Bumper with Winch Mount

$577.99

Aluminum Stubbie Replacement Bumper with Winch Mount Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Black powder coat;Center section only;Modular design that can be added to;Accepts factory fog lights;Includes vacuum pump relocation bracket JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Winch Mount Included Aries Offroad Aries Offroad Aluminum Stubbie Replacement Front Bumper with Winch Mount (Black) - AL15600-0 AL15600-0 Front Bumpers [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Aries Offroad

1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) Olympic 4x4 Products Front Rock Winch Bumper in Gloss Black
 

1995 JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) Olympic 4x4 Products Front Rock Winch Bumper in Gloss Black

$465.99

Front Rock Winch Bumper Fits 1987 to 1995 YJ Wrangler;Built rock solid;Gull wing style allows improved tire clearance;Protects the full front end from fender to fender;Sits on top of the frame horns increasing the ground clearance under the bumper JEEP WRANGLER (YJ) BASE ISLANDER LAREDO RENEGADE RIO GRANDE S SAHARA SE SPORT 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 2.5L (150) 4.2L (258) 4L Power Tech (242) GAS with Winch Mount Included Olympic 4x4 Products Olympic 4x4 Products Front Rock Winch Bumper in Gloss Black (Black) - 506-111 506-111 Front Bumpers [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Olympic 4X4 Products

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Smittybilt XRC Gen2 Front Bumper W/Winch Plate - Black Textured
 

2010 JEEP WRANGLER (JK) Smittybilt XRC Gen2 Front Bumper W/Winch Plate - Black Textured

$699.99

XRC Gen2 Front Bumper with Winch Plate Fits 2007 to 2016 JK Wrangler, Rubicon and Unlimited;2 and 4-door models;Two-stage textured matte black finish;New Gen2 solid d-ring and jack point mount - welded on the inside and out;Aggressive design for with raised corners for better entry and exit angles for the most extreme conditions;1.75" 120 Wall over rider and kickers;Lower design winch plate allows greater air flow and rated to accommodate up to 12k winch;O.E. fog light provision;Manufactured from 3/16" cold rolled steel;Tow-able D-ring mounts;Powder coat finish with 5-year limited warranty;Smittybilt Advantage lifetime warranty JEEP WRANGLER (JK) 70TH ANNIVERSARY ISLANDER MOUNTAIN RUBICON SAHARA SPORT UNLIMITED 70TH ANNIVERSARY UNLIMITED ISLANDER UNLIMITED MOUNTAIN UNLIMITED RUBICON UNLIMITED SAHARA UNLIMITED SPORT UNLIMITED X X 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 3.6L ERB (220) Pentastar 3.8L (3778cc) GAS with Winch Mount Included with Grille Guard Included with Light... [Read more]

Store: 4 Wheel Drive Hardware

Brand: Smittybilt

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Donde "paso" es la distancia entre elementos similares dispuestos en un modelo o entre dos puntos de una pieza mecánica como, por ejemplo, la distancia entre las cimas de dos ranuras consecutivas de un disco, o entre dos filetes consecutivos de un tornillo.

Problema

Si el paso o distancia entre filetes es de 1/4 pulgada y una fuerza P de 100 libras es aplicada, que carga de peso W se puede mover por el tornillo si la longitud de la rosca por vuelta del tornillo es de 10 pulgadas?

Solución

Sustituyendo en la ecuación anterior:

Cuña

La cuña es prácticamente un par de planos inclinados que se colocan espalda a espalda o en contacto a lo largo de sus bases (ver figura 5).

Figura 5. Aplicación de una cuña (P) para levantar una carga pesada o peso (W).

Regla:  La fuerza aplicada P es la carga W, como el espesor de la cuña es a su longitud.

Así, el cálculo es:

fuerza aplicada P : carga W = espesor de la cuña: longitud de la cuña

Problema

¿ Qué fuerza aplicada  P se requiere para elevar una carga W de 2000 libras, utilizando una cuña que tiene 4 pulgadas de espesor y 20 pulgadas de longitud?

Solución

Sustituyendo en la ecuación:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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