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Fotografía - Conceptos de cámaras SLR

Photography – SLR cameras

Focal length explained

Your choice of lens will dictate how much of a scene you’re able to shoot. Unfortunately this useful information isn’t shown on most lenses.

Instead, each lens is given a number called the focal length. This number, to those in the know, tells you the all-important field-of-view of the lens. But rather than get too involved in the numbers, what you really need to know is how the different types of lenses can help your creativity. The easiest way of thinking about how focal lengths affect your images is to remember that a lens of around 30mm on a digital SLR with an APS-C sized sensor gives a similar view to your eyes.

On full-frame or 35mm SLRs this focal length equates to around 50mm, often called the ‘standard’ focal length. A focal length shorter than this, known as a wide-angle lens, gives a wider view and a longer focal length, known as a telephoto, gives a narrower view.

You’ve probably already come across these numbers on the lens that came with your digital SLR, which is likely to have a focal length of around 18-55mm. This means you have the option of shooting the image from a wider to a narrower view than your eyes.

Wide-angle

(Typical focal length of 10mm to 24mm) As the name implies, these lenses allow you to include a wide view. This means you can include more the scene than with longer focal length lenses, objects will appear smaller in the frame.

Standard

(Typical focal length of 30mm) This focal length gives a similar magnification to our eyes, so can give the most ‘natural’ looking images

Telephoto

(Typical focal length of 50mm and over) These lenses give a much narrower field of view than those with shorter focal lengths. The higher the focal length the greater magnification the lens will give, allowing you to pick out smaller parts of the scene to fill the frame.

 

Fotografía - Cámaras SLR

Distancia focal explicada.

La lente que usted elija le determinará que porción de la escena podrá capturar. Desafortunadamente esta información útil no es mostrada en la mayoría de las lentes. En cambio, a cada lente se le asigna un número llamado  distancia focal. Este número, para aquellos que están en conocimiento, le dice la profundidad de campo de importancia de la lente. Pero en lugar de involucrarse en los números, lo que usted necesita saber es cómo los diferentes tipos de lente lo pueden ayudar en su creatividad. La manera mas fácil de pensar en cómo las distancias focales afectan a sus imágenes es recordar que una lente de aproximadamente 30 mm sobre una SLR digital con un sensor de tamaño APS-C entrega una vista similar a sus ojos.  

Sobre SLRs de marco completo o 35mm esta distancia focal se equipara alrededor de los 50mm, con frecuencia llamada la distancia focal “estándar”. Una  distancia focal mas corta que esta, conocida como lente de gran angular, da una vista mas amplia y una distancia focal mayor, conocida como telefoto, da una vista mas estrecha.

Probablemente usted ya se ha cruzado con estos números sobre la lente que vino con su SLR digital, la que probablemente tenga una distancia focal de alrededor de 18-55 mm. Esto significa que usted tiene la opción de capturar la imagen desde una vista mas amplia a mas estrecha que sus ojos.

Gran angular

(Valores típicos de distancia focal de 10 mm a 24 mm). Como su nombre lo implica, estas longitudes le permiten incluir una vista amplia. Esto significa que usted puede incluir mas de la escena que con las lentes de distancia focal mas larga, los objetos aparecerán mas chicos en el cuadro.

Estándar

(Longitud focal típica de 30 mm) Esta distancia focal le da magnificación similar a sus ojos, por lo tanto da las imágenes de aspecto mas “natural”.

Telefoto

(Típica distancia focal de 50mm y mas). Estas lentes dan un campo de visión mucho mas estrecho que aquellas con distancias focales mas cortas. Cuanto mas alta la distancia focal, mayor es la ampliación que la lente dará, permitiéndole seleccionar partes mas pequeñas de la escena para llenar el cuadro.

 

Perspective

Lenses allow you to fine-tune the amount of a scene that you shoot without having to move closer or further away from the subject. But your viewpoint (that’s where you take the photo from in relation to the subject) also has a huge part to play in how you use your lenses creatively. This is down to perspective, which makes objects at different distances from the camera appear closer together or further away from each other.

You’ll often hear people say that long focal length lenses give a flatter perspective, and wide-angle lenses give greater depth to your pictures. This is rubbish.

Lenses play no part in the perspective of your shots – this is purely down to your viewpoint. What the lens allows you to do is frame the shot successfully from a viewpoint that gives you the perspective that you want. So, viewing objects at a greater distance flattens the perspective of the subject, and a telephoto lens allows you to only include these distant objects. Shoot the same scene with a wider lens and simply crop the image and you’ll get the same flattened perspective.

Similarly, get close to the subject and it will appear further away from objects behind it, and the wider the lens the closer you can get to the subject, as it appears smaller in the frame than with a longer lens.

Perspectiva

Las lentes le permiten ajustar la porción de una escena que usted captura sin tener que acercarse o alejarse del sujeto. Pero su punto de vista (o sea donde toma la foto en relación con el sujeto) juega además una parte importante en cómo use la creatividad en sus lentes. Es debido a la perspectiva, la que hace que los objetos a diferentes distancia de la cámara aparezcan mas cercanos, o mas alejados entre sí.

Escuchará con frecuencia a la gente decir que una gran distancia focal da una perspectiva mas plana,  y que las lentes de gran angular dan mayor profundidad de campo a sus imágenes. Estas son tonterías.

Las lentes no juegan ninguna parte en la perspectiva de sus tomas – esto está puramente relacionado con su punto de vista. Lo que las lentes le permiten hacer es encuadrar la toma exitosamente desde un punto de vista que le de la perspectiva que necesita. Por lo tanto, ver objetos a una distancia mayor aplana la perspectiva del sujeto, y una lente telefoto sólo le permite incluir estos objetos distantes. Capture la misma escena con una lente de mayor angular y simplemente recorte la imagen y obtendrá la misma perspectiva aplanada.

Similarmente, acérquese al sujeto y el mismo aparecerá mas alejado de los objetos detrás del mismo, y cuanto mayor sea el ancho de lente mas se puede usted acercar al sujeto, debido a que el mismo aparece mas pequeño en el cuadro que con una lente mas larga.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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