Oficios Técnicos

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ÓPTICA - refracción de la luz - índices de refracción - índice de refracción relativo "na – b" - leyes de la refracción - ángulo límite y reflexión total "l" - lámina de caras paralelas. desplazamiento "d" del rayo - prisma óptico. calculo "d" de desviación - desviación mínima de prisma - índice de refracción con desviación mínima - imágenes por refracción- lentes - elementos de las lentes - rayos principales en las lentes convergentes y divergentes

C) REFRACCIÓN DE LA LUZ

Es el fenómeno físico que consiste en el cambió de dirección que experimenta un rayo luminosos al incidir en la superficie de separación entre dos medios de distinta densidad,debido a que el rayo luminoso cambia su velocidad.

La refracción se produce cuando el rayo luminoso incide en forma oblícua a la superficie de separación entre dos medios distintos.

ÍNDICES DE REFRACCIÓN

ÍNDICE DE REFRACCIÓN ABSOLUTO "n"

  • n = índice de refracción.
  • C = velocidad de la luz en el vacío 300 000 km/s
  • V = velocidad de la luz en el otro medio.

ÍNDICE DE REFRACCIÓN RELATIVO "nA – B"

VA = velocidad de la luz en el medio A.

VB = velocidad de la luz en el medio B.

LEYES DE LA REFRACCIÓN

1ra. LEY: Es cualitativa:

"El rayo incidente, la normal y el rayo refractado están en un mismo plano, llamado plano de incidencia".

2da. LEY: Es cuantitativa:

"La relación del seno del ángulo de incidencia y el seno del ángulo de refracción es constante e igual al índice de refracción".

nA – B = índice de refracción del medio B con respecto al medio A.

ÁNGULO LÍMITE Y REFLEXIÓN TOTAL : "L"

Cuando la luz va del agua al aire:

• El rayo 1 pasa de frente, no refracta ni refleja.

• El rayo 2 refracta y refleja.

• El rayo 3 refracta a 90º y refleja.

• El rayo 4 todo refleja porque el ángulo de incidencia es mayor que el ángulo límite "L".

n = índice de refracción del agua con respecto al aire.

L = ángulo límite de refracción.

LÁMINA DE CARAS PARALELAS. DESPLAZAMIENTO "d" DEL RAYO

Sea por ejemplo el vidrio de una ventana de espesor "h", a través del cual pasa un rayo de luz.

PRISMA ÓPTICO. CALCULO "D" DE DESVIACIÓN

DESVIACIÓN MÍNIMA DE PRISMA:

ÍNDICE DE REFRACCIÓN CON DESVIACIÓN MÍNIMA:

IMÁGENES POR REFRACCIÓN

Cuando un cuerpo está sumergido

Determinación de profundida aparente "pa" o profundidad aparente "pa" o profundidad real "pr".

LENTES

Son cuerpos refractantes, refrigerantes, limitados por dos superficies o ambas esféricas, o una esférica y la otra plana.

ELEMENTOS DE LAS LENTES

1) Eje principal "CC1"

2) Centro de curvatura "CC" y C1"

3) Centro óptico

4) Foco principal "F"

5) Distancia focal "OF" = f = R/2

CF = FO

y OF'1 = F'1 C'1

RAYOS PRINCIPALES EN LAS LENTES CONVERGENTES Y DIVERGENTES

Todo rayo paralelo al eje principal, en una lente convergente, se refracta pasando por el foco. Si la lente es divergente, la prolongación del rayo refractado es la que pasa por el foco.

Todo rayo que pasa por el centro óptico no se desvía, sea la lente cóncava o convergente.

Todo rayo que pasa por el foco de una lente convergente, que incide en una lente, se refracta paralelo al eje principal. Todo rayo que incide en una lente divergente, cuya prolongación pasa por el foco se refracta paralelo al eje principal.


 

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