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Tecnologías de Comunicaciones Ópticas y Normativas. Generalidades de la fibra óptica

Pérdidas Intrínsecas

Absorción debida a rayos UV e IR

Este mecanismo de pérdidas se debe a la interacción existente entre los fotones que viajan por la fibra y las moléculas que componen el núcleo. La energía fotónica se cede en parte a las moléculas de Si que van encontrando los fotones en su camino, produciendo vibraciones en las mismas.

La absorción debida a la componente de radiación UV de la luz transmitida decrece exponencialmente con la longitud de onda, y es casi despreciable a partir de los 1000 nm. La debida a los rayos IR se origina por las vibraciones de átomos de Si y O, creciendo exponencialmente con la longitud de onda, pero no es apreciable hasta los 1400 nm.

Dispersión de Rayleigh

Este fenómeno de dispersión se produce cuando la luz encuentra en su camino partículas extrañas al medio continuo, cuyo diámetro es mucho mayor que la longitud de onda de la señal. La difracción resultante absorbe parte de la energía de la señal y produce una pérdida de energía que decrece exponencialmente con la cuarta potencia de la longitud de onda.

Las pérdidas por este efecto son las de mayor influencia para longitudes de onda desde los 400 a 1100 nm. En resumen podemos ver,

Pérdidas de origen Externo

Absorción debida a Impurezas

Los tipos de impurezas más usuales en el silicio de la fibra son las metálicas (Hierro, Cromo, Cobalto, etc.) y los iones hidroxilo (OH–). Las impurezas metálicas originan pérdidas del orden de 1 dB/km si su concentración en de 1ppm, pero al ser relativamente fácil su control en el proceso de fabricación, se pueden reducir al mínimo.

En cambio, las del tipo hidroxilo (presentes por deposición de partículas de agua durante la fabricación de la fibra) no son fácilmente controlables, y a 2272 nm se produce una resonancia de la estructura atómica de los iones con el Si, transfiriendo la energía de los fotones a los iones. Este fenómeno produce tres picos adicionales de pérdidas, correspondientes a los tres primeros armónicos de esta frecuencia, en longitudes de onda definidas.

Curvaturas de la Fibra

Siempre que una fibra se somete a una curvatura por bobinado, tendido, etc., se origina una atenuación adicional por el hecho de que la interfaz núcleo-revestimiento deja de ser geométricamente uniforme, esto es, la luz comienza a reflejarse en algunos puntos con ángulos diferentes a los calculados inicialmente, y deja de verificarse el principio de reflexión total, produciendo la fuga de algunos modos por el revestimiento.

Esta atenuación varía exponencialmente con el radio de curvatura, con lo es despreciable hasta pasar la curvatura crítica. Esta curvatura crítica es de diez a doce veces el diámetro exterior del cable.

Pérdida por curvatura

Pérdidas por Microcurvaturas

Cada proceso de fabricación tiene sus propias tolerancias y arrastra errores. Los defectos que provocan las llamadas pérdidas por microcurvaturas son irregularidades entre el núcleo y el revestimiento, las fluctuaciones de diámetro (error de elipticidad) y fundamentalmente el error de concentricidad.

Estas pérdidas presentan la particularidad que afectan a toda la banda de información y varían muy poco con la longitud de onda, y también que sólo se origina atenuación cuando las irregularidades periódicas están separadas menos de una longitud L0.

Esta longitud es directamente proporcional al radio del núcleo, e inversamente a la diferencia relativa de índices:

donde se observa que una diferencia de índice demasiado pequeña puede ser causa de pérdidas por microcurvaturas, pues al aumentar L0 las irregularidades pueden distar entre sí longitudes menores que dicha longitud crítica.

En las fibras, las irregularidades periódicas motivan en general un trasvase de potencia de unos modos de propagación a otros, y cuando el espaciamiento es menor que L0, la potencia guiada se escapa por el revestimiento, originandose la atenuación.

Así, en una fibra con radio a=25μm y δ=0.01 se producen pérdidas de radiación cuando hay irregularidades periódicas a 1mm o menos. A este tipo de pérdidas se las llama Mie, y pueden reducirse adoptando las siguientes medidas:

· Aumentar la diferencia de índices de refracción entre núcleo y revestimiento
· Aumentar la sección de la fibra

Atenuación por tendido, ambiente y envejecimiento

Durante la instalación, además de las curvaturas comentadas, la fibra se ve sometida a los agentes climáticos y a cierta fatiga estática provocada por el tendido, que contribuyen también en cierto grado a incrementar las pérdidas y a acortar la vida de la fibra. Las soluciones a adoptar son:

  • Aplicar sobre un recubrimiento primario con una sustancia rígida, en forma de segundo recubrimiento ceñido.
  • Colocar la fibra, con su primer revestimiento dentro de uno segundo, holgado, rellenando el espacio intermedio con un medio viscoso.

En lo referente al envejecimiento de la fibra, cabe resaltar que se produce en determinadas condiciones de tensión permanente, o cuando se producen fisuras superficiales.

Atenuación Total

Si se suman las pérdidas antes anunciadas, se obtiene una curva como la que se ve en la figura, en la que se observa:

· Una zona por debajo de los 800 nm, que no es conveniente utilizar por su alta atenuación.

· Una zona por encima de los 1600 nm que presenta problemas por atenuación por el efecto de los rayor IR.

· Tres zonas de mínima atenuación (ventanas ), que determinan las longitudes de onda habituales para trabajar.

Resumiendo, las causas de atenuación dentro de las fibras ópticas son:

§ Esparcimiento (scattering):
o Rayleigh scattering (proporcional con l -4 ) por fluctuaciones en la composición y anisotropía de vidrio
o No se puede evitar
o Dispersión (scattering) en todas direcciones
o Dependiente de la longitud de onda

§ Absorción
o Absorción UV
o Absorción IR
o Absorción por hidrógeno (OH-)
o Absorción por impurezas

§ Defectos físicos
o Microcurvaturas (microbending): pequeñas irregularidades
o Macrocurvaturas (macrobending): R<R0

Dispersión en las Fibras

Los rayos insertados en una fibra en todo momento de cierto número de grados de libertad en su progresión hacia el otro extremo. Como es posible que sigan caminos diferentes y, por otra parte, la velocidad en cada punto , y en consecuencia el índice de refracción, depende de la longitud de onda, se producirán ensanchamientos temporales de los pulsos cuyo efecto es acumulativo con la distancia.

A los efectos anteriores ha de sumarse el ensanchamiento causado por las distintas estructuras ópticas y geométricas de la fibra. Este conjunto de efectos conforman un segundo parámetro característico de las fibras: la dispersión. Este parámetro defina la capacidad máxima que, por unidad de longitud, se puede transmitir por una fibra, por lo que puede medirse en términos de retarde relativo o de la máxima frecuencia pasante que admite.

Como el efecto de la dispersiones acumulativo con la longitud de la fibra, la capacidad de la misma se mide MHz x km, por lo que el número de circuitos que admite se puede aumentar disminuyendo el ancho de banda óptico del emisor y aumentando la longitud de onda media en que emite. Esto justifica la preferencia del diodo láser sobre el LED y el empleo de ventanas cada vez más altas.

Una ventaja adicional estriba en que sobre una fibra instalada se puede aumentar la capacidad cambiando los elementos emisores y receptores por otros de mejores características. Esto permite la reutilización de la planta de fibra óptica. El fenómeno global de la dispersión definido se debe a tres factores de los que hablaremos por separado:

  • Dispersión Modal (o intermodal), σm.
  • Dispersión del Material (o intramodal, o espectral), σe.
  • Dispersión por Guía de Ondas, σgo.

Las dos primeras son inherentes a las fibras multimodo, pero, atendiendo a su diferente naturaleza, han de sumarse cuadráticamente. Por el contrario las dispersiones del material y de guía de ondas se refieren a cada modo, por lo que se suman en modo lineal, esta suma es llamada dispersión cromática. El valor cuadrático medio de la dispersión total será:

Limitación del Ancho de Banda

Se define el ancho de banda como el valor de la frecuencia transmitida a ambos lados del valor central de la distribución para el que la potencia recibida cae a la mitad. Se supone que, siendo la excitación un impulso de Dirac, la respuesta en el tiempo y en frecuencia adoptan una distribución de Gauss cuya desviación típica, s, es la dispersión total.

La característica de transferencia de la fibra óptica puede considerarse modelada por una forma gaussiana. Es decir, ante una excitación ideal [función de Dirac , δ(t )] la salida [respuesta impulsiva, h(t)] presenta una conformación gaussiana, obedeciendo a la expresión:

Como la transformada de Fourier de una distribución gaussiana conserva la forma, la frecuencia, H( f )= f [h(t )], también será gaussiana :

Partiendo de la configuración en el dominio de la frecuencia, y considerando una caída de –3 db ópticos, o sus correspondientes – 6 db eléctricos, se define el ancho de banda como el valor de la frecuencia de transmitida para la cual la potencia óptica recibida cae a la mitad del valor que tiene para ω= 0.

A partir de tal definición resulta:

Es usual expresar el ancho de banda en Ghz Km. El significado de tal expresión es “ el ancho de banda por unidad de longitud” . No obstante, la interpretación será diferente según se trate de fibras monomodo o multimodo:

a) para fibras multimodo el ancho de banda expresado en Ghz Km solo puede interpretarse como la frecuencia de corte intermodal, B0 .

b) en las fibras monomodo, donde tanto la dispersión total como el ancho de banda varían linealmente con la longitud ( por no acusar dispersión modal ), el ancho de banda expresado en Ghz Km es el resultado del producto ancho de banda G ( Ghz) por la longitud L (Km) para el cual se calculó, supuesta una fuente óptica determinada.

Dispersión Modal

Hemos visto que las distintas velocidades y direcciones asociadas a las longitudes de onda que entran en la fibra pueden permitir la propagación en diferentes modos y que el número de ellos es tanto mayor cuanto mayor sea la libertad de recorridos y el diámetro del núcleo (2a). Esto implica que los rayos de la misma longitud de onda que incidan simultáneamente, pero en direcciones distintas, llegarán en instantes diferentes al extremo receptor.

Este efecto es conocido como dispersión modal, por afectar las relaciones entre los modos, y es un parámetro característico de las fibras multimodo.

Si tenemos, por ejemplo, tres modos que parten en un mismo instante del transmisor y que a consecuencia del diferente recorrido llegan al receptor en instantes diferentes, de esta forma el pulso sufre un ensanchamiento debido al aporte de cada modo.

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CableWholesale LCST-11105 Fiber Optic Cable LC ST Multimode Duplex 62.5-125 5 meter (16.5 foot)

$16.44  $12.18

This 5 meter (~16 feet) fiber optic cable is terminated with a LC (Lucent Connector) connector on one end and a ST (Straight Tip/Bayonet Connector) connector on the other end. It is a multimode fiber (62.5 micron core) designed to transmit data across shorter distances at LAN speeds. The cord is duplex (two fibers) which means it permits synchronous communication between devices. The cladding diameter is 125 microns. (Not for Home Theater) End 1: LC Male Fiber Plug End 2: ST Male Fiber Plug Length: 5 meters Color: Orange [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

CableWholesale LCLC-11110-PL Multimode Duplex Fiber Optic 62.5-125
 

CableWholesale LCLC-11110-PL Multimode Duplex Fiber Optic 62.5-125

$26.53  $20.41

Plenum Fiber Optic Cable LC / LC Multimode Duplex 62.5/125 10 meter (33 foot) [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

Monoprice 4628 Fiber Optic Cable SC & SC Single Mode Duplex 2 Meter - Yellow
 

Monoprice 4628 Fiber Optic Cable SC & SC Single Mode Duplex 2 Meter - Yellow

$23.14  $17.80

Features 2 Meter its immunity to electronic interference and its greater speeds over longer distances; fiber optic cabling has become the conduit of choice for high speed network communications. Monoprice is proud to offer a full line of high-quality Single-mode and Multi-mode duplex cables using optical fibers made by Corning. This is an single-mode cable with a 9 &amp;mu;m core and 125 &amp;mu;m cladding diameter. The cable has a color-coded Dual SC connector on each end. The cable jacket is OFNR (Optical Fiber; Non-conductive; Riser) rated by UL; which means that it complies with fire safety and insurance requirements and is safe for use within the walls; and between the floors; of commercial class buildings. Color - Yellow [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Monoprice

CableWholesale STST-01205 Fiber Optic Cable ST ST Singlemode Duplex 9-125 5 meter (16.5 foot)
 

CableWholesale STST-01205 Fiber Optic Cable ST ST Singlemode Duplex 9-125 5 meter (16.5 foot)

$18.44  $13.66

This 5 meter (~16 feet) fiber optic cable is terminated with ST (Straight Tip/Bayonet Connector) connectors on both ends. It is a singlemode fiber (9 micron core) designed to transmit data across long distances at high speeds. The cord is duplex (two fibers) which means it permits synchronous communication between devices. The cladding diameter is 125 microns. (Not for Home Theater) End 1: ST Male Fiber Plug End 2: ST Male Fiber Plug Length: 5 meters Color: Yellow [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

CableWholesale MPMP-32010 Multimode Duplex Fiber Optic 50-125
 

CableWholesale MPMP-32010 Multimode Duplex Fiber Optic 50-125

$284.77  $210.94

Plenum Fiber Optic Cable MTP / MTP (MPO) Multimode Duplex 24 Strand 100 Gbps 50/125 10 meter (33 foot) [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

Monoprice 6411 10Gb Fiber Optic Cable ST & ST Multi Mode Duplex 2 Meter - Aqua
 

Monoprice 6411 10Gb Fiber Optic Cable ST & ST Multi Mode Duplex 2 Meter - Aqua

$12.93  $9.58

Features Duplex 2 Meter immunity to electronic interference and its greater speeds over longer distances; fiber optic cabling has become the conduit of choice for high speed network communications. Monoprice is proud to offer a full line of high-quality Single-mode and Multi-mode duplex cables using optical fibers made by Corning. This is an OM3 laser-optimized; multi-mode cable with a 50 &amp;mu;m core and 125 &amp;mu;m cladding diameter. The cable has a pair of color-coded ST connectors on each end and is ideal for use in 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) networks. The cable jacket is OFNR (Optical Fiber; Non-conductive; Riser) rated by UL; which means that it complies with fire safety and insurance requirements and is safe for use within the walls; and between the floors; of commercial class buildings. Color - Aqua [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Monoprice

CableWholesale LCLC-11012 Multimode Duplex Fiber Optic 50-125
 

CableWholesale LCLC-11012 Multimode Duplex Fiber Optic 50-125

$25.17  $19.36

Fiber Optic Cable LC / LC Multimode Duplex 50/125 12 meter (39.3 foot) [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

CableWholesale LCLC-31015 Multimode Aqua 10 Gig Fiber Optic 50-125
 

CableWholesale LCLC-31015 Multimode Aqua 10 Gig Fiber Optic 50-125

$27.97  $20.72

10 Gigabit Aqua Fiber Optic Cable LC / LC Multimode Duplex 50/125 15 meter (49.2 foot) [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

CableWholesale LCLC-31020 Multimode Aqua 10 Gig Fiber Optic 50-125
 

CableWholesale LCLC-31020 Multimode Aqua 10 Gig Fiber Optic 50-125

$34.24  $26.34

10 Gigabit Aqua Fiber Optic Cable LC / LC Multimode Duplex 50/125 20 meter (65.6 foot) [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

TRIPP LITE N816-05M PATCH CABLE - LC-MULTIMODE - MALE - SC-MULTIMODE - MALE - FIBER OPTIC - 5 M - AQ
 

TRIPP LITE N816-05M PATCH CABLE - LC-MULTIMODE - MALE - SC-MULTIMODE - MALE - FIBER OPTIC - 5 M - AQ

$26.04  $21.24

TRIPP LITE PATCH CABLE - LC-MULTIMODE - MALE - SC-MULTIMODE - MALE - FIBER OPTIC - 5 M - AQ PATCH CABLE - LC-MULTIMODE - MALE - SC-MULTIMODE - MALE - FIBER OPTIC - 5 M - AQ UA BLUE Manufacturer: TRIPP LITE UPC: 037332134356 [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Interex By Tripp-Lite

CableWholesale 10F2-006NH Singlemode Duplex Fiber Optic 9-125
 

CableWholesale 10F2-006NH Singlemode Duplex Fiber Optic 9-125

$243.39  $180.29

6 Fiber Indoor Distribution Fiber Optic Cable Singlemode 9/125 Yellow Riser Rated Spool 1000 foot [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

CableWholesale SCSC-01203 Fiber Optic Cable SC SC Singlemode Duplex 9-125 3 meter (10 foot)
 

CableWholesale SCSC-01203 Fiber Optic Cable SC SC Singlemode Duplex 9-125 3 meter (10 foot)

$17.75  $13.15

This 3 meter (~10 feet) fiber optic cable is terminated with SC (Subscriber Connector) connectors on both ends. It is a singlemode fiber (9 micron core) designed to transmit data across long distances at high speeds. The cord is duplex (two fibers) which means it permits synchronous communication between devices. The cladding diameter is 125 microns. (Not for Home Theater) End 1: SC Male Fiber Plug End 2: SC Male Fiber Plug Length: 3 meters Color: Yellow [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

CableWholesale SCSC-11130 Multimode Duplex Fiber Optic 62.5-125
 

CableWholesale SCSC-11130 Multimode Duplex Fiber Optic 62.5-125

$36.34  $27.95

Fiber Optic Cable SC / SC Multimode Duplex 62.5/125 30 meter (98.4 foot) [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

Monoprice 6385 10Gb Fiber Optic Cable LC LC Multi Mode Duplex - Aqua
 

Monoprice 6385 10Gb Fiber Optic Cable LC LC Multi Mode Duplex - Aqua

$21.78  $16.13

Features Its immunity to electronic interference and its greater speeds over longer distances Fiber optic cabling has become the conduit of choice for high speed network communications. offers a full line of high-quality Single-mode and Multi-mode duplex cables using optical fibers made by Corning. This is an OM3 &quot;Aqua&quot; laser-optimized multi-mode cable with a 50 &amp;mu;m core and 125 &amp;mu;m cladding diameter. The cable has color-coded Dual LC connectors on each end and is ideal for use in 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) networks. The cable jacket is OFNR (Optical Fiber Non-conductive Riser) rated by UL Which means that it complies with fire safety and insurance requirements and is safe for use within the walls and between the floors of commercial class buildings. Color - Aqua [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Monoprice

Monoprice 6394 10GB Fiber Optic Multi Mode Duplex Cable LC-SC 10 m. - Aqua
 

Monoprice 6394 10GB Fiber Optic Multi Mode Duplex Cable LC-SC 10 m. - Aqua

$31.76  $24.43

Because of its immunity to electronic interference and its greater speeds over longer distances; fiber optic cabling has become the conduit of choice for high speed network communications. Monoprice is proud to offer a full line of high-quality Single-mode and Multi-mode duplex cables using optical fibers made by Corning. This is an OM3; Aqua; laser-optimized; multi-mode cable with a 50 &amp;#181;m core and 125 m cladding diameter. The cable has a color-coded Dual LC connector on one end and a Dual SC connector on the other end. It is ideal for use in 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) networks. The cable jacket is OFNR (Optical Fiber; Non-conductive; Riser) rated by UL; which means that it complies with fire safety and insurance requirements and is safe for use within the walls; and between the floors; of commercial class buildings. Color - Aqua Length - 10 m. [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Monoprice

Monoprice 2602 Fiber Optic Cable ST & ST OM1 Multi Mode Duplex 2 meter - Orange
 

Monoprice 2602 Fiber Optic Cable ST & ST OM1 Multi Mode Duplex 2 meter - Orange

$21.10  $16.23

Features Because of its immunity to electronic interference and its greater speeds over longer distances; fiber optic cabling has become the conduit of choice for high speed network communications. Monoprice is proud to offer a full line of high-quality Single-mode and Multi-mode duplex cables using optical fibers made by Corning. This is an OM1 multi-mode cable with a 62.5 &amp;#0956;m core and 125 &amp;#0956;m cladding diameter. The cable has a pair of color-coded ST connectors on each end. The cable jacket is OFNR (Optical Fiber; Non-conductive; Riser) rated by UL; which means that it complies with fire safety and insurance requirements and is safe for use within the walls; and between the floors; of commercial class buildings. Color - Orange [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Monoprice

Monoprice 2606 Fiber Optic Cable ST & SC OM1 Multi Mode Duplex 1 Meter - Orange
 

Monoprice 2606 Fiber Optic Cable ST & SC OM1 Multi Mode Duplex 1 Meter - Orange

$20.87  $16.05

Features 1 meter its immunity to electronic interference and its greater speeds over longer distances; fiber optic cabling has become the conduit of choice for high speed network communications. Monoprice is proud to offer a full line of high-quality Single-mode and Multi-mode duplex cables using optical fibers made by Corning. This is an OM1 multi-mode cable with a 62.5 &amp;mu;m core and 125 &amp;mu;m cladding diameter. The cable has a pair of color-coded ST connectors on one end and a Dual SC connector on the other end. The cable jacket is OFNR (Optical Fiber; Non-conductive; Riser) rated by UL; which means that it complies with fire safety and insurance requirements and is safe for use within the walls; and between the floors; of commercial class buildings. Color - Orange [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Monoprice

CableWholesale SCSC-01202 Fiber Optic Cable SC SC Singlemode Duplex 9-125 2 meter (6.6 foot)
 

CableWholesale SCSC-01202 Fiber Optic Cable SC SC Singlemode Duplex 9-125 2 meter (6.6 foot)

$14.96  $11.08

This 2 meter (~6 feet) fiber optic cable is terminated with SC (Subscriber Connector) connectors on both ends. It is a singlemode fiber (9 micron core) designed to transmit data across long distances at high speeds. The cord is duplex (two fibers) which means it permits synchronous communication between devices. The cladding diameter is 125 microns. (Not for Home Theater) End 1: SC Male Fiber Plug End 2: SC Male Fiber Plug Length: 2 meters Color: Yellow [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

CableWholesale LCLC-31009 Multimode Aqua 10 Gig Fiber Optic 50-125
 

CableWholesale LCLC-31009 Multimode Aqua 10 Gig Fiber Optic 50-125

$24.10  $18.54

10 Gigabit Aqua Fiber Optic Cable LC / LC Multimode Duplex 50/125 9 meter (29.5 foot) [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

CableWholesale LCLC-31010-PL Multimode Aqua 10 Gig Fiber Optic 50-125
 

CableWholesale LCLC-31010-PL Multimode Aqua 10 Gig Fiber Optic 50-125

$17.29  $12.81

Plenum 10 Gigabit Aqua Fiber Optic Cable LC / LC Multimode Duplex 50/125 10 meter (33 foot) [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

CableWholesale SCSC-01230 Singlemode Duplex Fiber Optic 9-125
 

CableWholesale SCSC-01230 Singlemode Duplex Fiber Optic 9-125

$34.91  $26.85

Fiber Optic Cable SC / SC Singlemode Duplex 9/125 30 meter (98.4ft) [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

CableWholesale LCLC-11108 Multimode Duplex Fiber Optic 62.5-125
 

CableWholesale LCLC-11108 Multimode Duplex Fiber Optic 62.5-125

$29.64  $22.80

Fiber Optic Cable LC / LC Multimode Duplex 62.5/125 8 meter (26.2 foot) [Read more]

Store: UnbeatableSale.com

Brand: Cable Wholesale

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